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In a landmark move, India’s legal system is undergoing a significant modernization. On December 12th, the Union Home Minister presented a series of bills aimed at replacing the nation’s outdated criminal codes. These bills propose to do away with the Indian Penal Code (IPC) of 1860, the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) of 1973, and the Indian Evidence Act of 1872 – all relics of British colonial rule. This comprehensive overhaul signifies a major step towards bringing India’s legal framework into the 21st century. The new legislation promises to align the justice system with contemporary needs and values, potentially leading to a more efficient and effective way of administering justice.

Why The Need of New Criminal Laws Was Felt ?

India’s criminal justice system has evolved over various historical periods, from ancient times to the present day. In ancient India, principles from the Rig Veda guided punishments based on Dharma. The Delhi Sultanate era saw influences from texts like Smriti and the implementation of Shariat law.

Under the Mughal Empire, the Mahakuma e Adalat handled legal matters, but faced challenges such as the lack of separation between branches and corruption.

During the colonial period, the East India Company introduced court systems and the High Court, leading to legal codes in the 1860s.

Revisions to these laws were recently made following recommendations from the Standing Committee and approval by Parliament, receiving assent from the President in December 2023. It’s recognized that colonial-era laws are outdated and require reform to ensure justice prevails. Many parts of these laws are no longer relevant and need updating.

For a long time, the laws like the Indian Penal Code (IPC), Indian Evidence Act, and Code of Criminal Procedure have been hanging over India’s legal system. Though they’ve been important, they’ve struggled to handle the complexities of today’s India. Now, things are changing. New laws are being introduced to update our legal system. This started in 2020 when a committee was formed to look into changing these old laws. The new laws, called Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS), Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam (BSA), and Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS), promise to bring in fresh rules designed for India today.


Understanding New Criminal Laws In Detail:

The  Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) (earlier known as The Indian Penal Code,1860)

The Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) of 2023 is a significant overhaul of India’s criminal law. It completely replaces the Indian Penal Code (IPC) of 1860. The BNS takes a more comprehensive approach to crime and punishment. 

  • Modernized Framework: The BNS revises existing laws, removes outdated ones, and adds entirely new sections. This creates a more relevant legal framework for addressing contemporary crimes.

  • Focus on National Security: The BNS prioritizes national security by introducing a specific offense for actions that threaten India’s sovereignty, unity, and integrity.

  • Combating Modern Threats: The law recognizes new challenges like terrorism and organized crime. It establishes these as distinct offenses and prescribes stricter punishments for them.

  • Graduated Penalties: The BNS differentiates between serious and minor offenses. Harsher punishments are reserved for severe crimes, while lesser offenses might involve community service as a form of rehabilitation. This promotes a more balanced approach to justice.

  • New Offenses: The BNS recognizes “snatching” as a specific criminal act under Section 304. This ensures appropriate legal recourse for victims of snatching incidents. According to this Act, a theft is snatching if the offender “suddenly or quickly or forcibly seizes or takes away from any person or from his possession any movable property.” The offence is punishable with up to three years’ imprisonment.

In simpler terms, the BNS is a modernized criminal code that addresses both traditional and emerging crimes with a focus on national security, differentiated punishments, and rehabilitation.


Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam (BSA) replaced -The Indian Evidence Act,1872 


The Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam (BSA) marks a significant evolution in the Indian legal system, replacing the outdated Indian Evidence Act of 1872. This new law acknowledges the fundamental shift in how evidence is presented in today’s technology-driven world.

One of the most crucial changes lies in the recognition of electronic evidence. Unlike the IEA, which relegated such evidence to a secondary status, the BSA grants electronic records primary evidence status. This reflects the reality that information stored or transmitted electronically holds the same validity as traditional paper documents. Section 57 specifically emphasizes this, ensuring that digital evidence carries the same weight in legal proceedings.

The BSA allows for the electronic presentation of even oral evidence, such as witness testimonies conducted remotely. This advancement ensures that physical presence in court is no longer a prerequisite for providing testimony, and digital records hold the same significance as traditional in-person appearances. While the provided text mentions Section 24, it likely focuses on refining existing procedures for joint trials rather than introducing a completely new concept. The BSA represents a crucial modernization of the Indian legal system, adapting to the digital age by streamlining the use of electronic evidence and facilitating remote participation in legal proceedings. This ensures a more efficient and adaptable legal framework in a world increasingly reliant on technology.

 Check This Article On- Difference Between The Indian Evidence Act,1872 and Bharatiya Sakshya Adhiniyam (BSA)


Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) replaced The Code of Criminal Procedure(CrPc)


The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) of 2023 ushers in a significant reform of India’s criminal justice system, aiming to make it more accessible and responsive to citizens’ needs. This new law introduces several key changes that prioritize efficiency and transparency:

  • Time-Bound Investigations: Recognizing the importance of swift investigations, the BNSS establishes specific timeframes for probing serious offenses. Section 176 mandates on-site investigations by appointed experts for crimes punishable with seven or more years of imprisonment. This ensures thorough and professional evidence collection, potentially leading to faster resolution of cases.

  • Digital Transformation: Embracing the digital age, Section 173 of the BNSS paves the way for conducting trials, inquiries, and legal proceedings electronically. This streamlines processes, potentially reducing delays and making legal procedures more accessible.

  • Zero FIRs: A groundbreaking concept introduced by the BNSS is the implementation of Zero FIRs. Section 173 empowers individuals to file a First Information Report (FIR) for a cognizable offense at any police station, regardless of jurisdictional boundaries. This eliminates the inconvenience of having to report the crime only at the specific police station where it occurred. The Act mandates the transfer of the FIR to the appropriate station within 15 days, ensuring prompt action is taken irrespective of the location of the crime.

  • Leveraging Technology for Public Benefit: The BNSS emphasizes the utilization of the Crime and Criminal Tracking System for the benefit of the public. This centralized database will likely provide greater transparency and accessibility to information related to criminal cases, potentially empowering citizens and ensuring better monitoring of the criminal justice system.

The Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita represents a significant step towards modernizing and streamlining India’s criminal procedural system. By focusing on time-bound investigations, digitalization of processes, and citizen-centric initiatives like Zero FIRs, the BNSS aims to make justice more efficient, accessible, and responsive to the needs of the public.

Check This Article On- Difference Between The Code of Criminal Procedure(CrPc) and Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS)

Comparison Between Old Criminal Laws vs. New Criminal Laws in India


Old Criminal Laws (Pre-2023)

New Criminal Laws (Implemented in 2023)


Indian Penal Code (IPC), 1860 – Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1898 – Indian Evidence Act, 1872

Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita (BNS) Act, 2023 (replacing IPC) – Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita (BNSS) Act, 2023 (replacing CrPC) – Bharatiya Sakshya (BS) Act, 2023 (replacing Indian Evidence Act)


Colonial-era laws, focused on punishment rather than rehabilitation.

Modernized laws, emphasizing restorative justice, victim rights, and social reintegration.



Hindi (with English translation available)


– Complex and cumbersome with numerous sections.

– Streamlined and simplified with fewer sections for easier comprehension.


Focus on imprisonment and corporal punishment.

Wider range of penalties, including community service, rehabilitation programs, and restorative justice measures.


Outdated definitions not reflecting current social realities.

Updated definitions to address contemporary issues like cybercrime and economic offenses.


Limited provisions for handling technology-related crimes.

Dedicated sections addressing cybercrime, electronic evidence, and online fraud.

Victim Rights

Limited focus on victim rights and support.

Enhanced victim rights, including witness protection, victim compensation, and legal aid.

Investigation Procedures

Outdated investigative procedures.

Modernized investigative procedures, incorporating scientific advancements and forensic techniques.

Trial Procedures

Complex and time-consuming trial processes.

Streamlined trial procedures for faster case resolution.

Gender Sensitivity

Limited provisions addressing gender-based crimes.

Stronger provisions for gender-based violence, including sexual harassment and stalking.


The implementation of the BNS, BNSS, and BSA signifies a pivotal moment for India’s legal system. This modernization paves the way for a more efficient, victim-centric, and technologically adept approach to criminal justice. While navigating these legal changes can be complex, understanding their core principles empowers individuals and businesses to adapt and thrive in this evolving legal landscape. As the system continues to adapt, staying informed and seeking qualified legal counsel remains crucial for navigating the intricacies of the new criminal laws.